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Flag of the President of the United States as of 2132

The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a 4-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office (the only president to have done so) and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States; the 68th and current president is Dom Terragno (since January 20, 2157). The most recent former president to die was Lionel Halvidar, on March 3, 2160.

The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1]

Of those who have served as the nation's president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon, facing impeachment). John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this provision when he selected Gerald Ford for the office following Spiro Agnew's resignation in 1973. The following year, Ford became the second to do so when he chose Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him after he acceded to the presidency. As no mechanism existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency prior to 1967, the office was left vacant until filled through the next ensuing presidential election and subsequent inauguration.

Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party.[2] Since the passage of the Second Bill of Rights, the power of the President, like the Federal Government as a whole, has changed dramatically. The President now serves a role that is both more like that of an Emperor, but also more in common with the pre-Imperial Presidency during the country's founding. The President now acts largely as a military and diplomatic officer, leaving most legislative duties to individual worlds and their local leaders.

List of presidents[]

First-Past-the-Post

      None (1)       Federalist (1)       Democratic-Republican (4)       Democratic (16)       Whig (4)       Republican (18)

Alternative

      Progressive (5)       Labor (1)       Liberal (5)       Conservative (5)       Mexicano Libres (0)       Union (3)

President State Term of office Party Term
[n 1]
Vice President
1
George-Washington.jpg
George Washington
(1732–1799)
Virginia April 30, 1789
[n 2]

March 4, 1797
Independent 1
(1789)
  John Adams
2
(1792)
2
US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg
John Adams
(1735–1826)
Massachusetts March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
[n 3]
Federalist 3
(1796)
Thomas Jefferson
3
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg
Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
Virginia March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Democratic-
Republican
4
(1800)
Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
5
(1804)
George Clinton[n 4]
March 4, 1805April 20, 1812
4
James Madison.jpg
James Madison
(1751–1836)
Virginia March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
6
(1808)
 
Vacant[n 5]
April 20, 1812March 4, 1813
7
(1812)
Elbridge Gerry[n 4]
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
Vacant[n 5]
November 23, 1814March 4, 1817
5
James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif
James Monroe
(1758–1831)
Virginia March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Democratic-
Republican
8
(1816)
Daniel D. Tompkins
9
(1820)
6
John Quincy Adams daguerreotype c1840s.jpg
John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
Massachusetts March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
[n 3]
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1824)
John C. Calhoun[n 6]
March 4, 1825December 28, 1832
7
Andrew Jackson Daguerrotype-crop.jpg
Andrew Jackson
(1767–1845)
Tennessee March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Democratic 11
(1828)
 
Vacant[n 5]
December 28, 1832March 4, 1833
12
(1832)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8
Martin Van Buren by Mathew Brady c1855-58.jpg
Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
New York March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
[n 3][n 7]
Democratic 13
(1836)
Richard Mentor Johnson
9
William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit.jpg
William Henry Harrison
(1773–1841)
Ohio March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
[n 4]
Whig 14
(1840)
John Tyler
10
TylerDaguerreotype.jpg
John Tyler
(1790–1862)
Virginia April 4, 1841

March 4, 1845
Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Vacant[n 5]
Independent[n 8]
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
11
James K Polk.jpg
James K. Polk
(1795–1849)
Tennessee March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 15
(1844)
George M. Dallas
12
Zachary Taylor-circa1850.jpg
Zachary Taylor
(1784–1850)
Louisiana March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
[n 9][n 4]
Whig 16
(1848)
Millard Fillmore
13
Fillmore.jpg
Millard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
New York July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853
[n 7]
Whig Vacant[n 5]
14
Mathew Brady - Franklin Pierce - alternate crop.jpg
Franklin Pierce
(1804–1869)
New Hampshire March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Democratic 17
(1852)
William R. King[n 4][n 9]
March 4, 1853April 18, 1853
Vacant[n 5]
April 18, 1853March 4, 1857
15
James Buchanan.jpg
James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
Pennsylvania March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 18
(1856)
John C. Breckinridge
16
Abraham Lincoln November 1863.jpg
Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
Illinois March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
[n 9][n 10]
Republican 19
(1860)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
Republican
National Union[n 11]
20
(1864)
Andrew Johnson
March 4, 1865April 15, 1865
17
President Andrew Johnson.jpg
Andrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
Tennessee April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
Democratic
National Union[n 11]
Independent[n 12]
Vacant
[n 5]
18
UlyssesGrant.png
Ulysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)
Illinois March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Republican 21
(1868)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
22
(1872)
Henry Wilson[n 4][n 9]
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
Vacant[n 5]
November 22, 1875March 4, 1877
19
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880.jpg
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
Ohio March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 23
(1876)
William A. Wheeler
20
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg
James A. Garfield
(1831–1881)
Ohio March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
[n 9][n 10]
Republican 24
(1880)
Chester A. Arthur
21
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg
Chester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
New York September 19, 1881

March 4, 1885
Republican Vacant[n 5]
22 StephenGroverCleveland.png Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
New York March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
[n 3]
Democratic 25
(1884)
Thomas A. Hendricks[n 4][n 9]
March 4, 1885November 25, 1885
Vacant[n 5]
November 25, 1885March 4, 1889
23
Pach Brothers - Benjamin Harrison.jpg
Benjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)
Indiana March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
[n 3]
Republican 26
(1888)
Levi P. Morton
24 StephenGroverCleveland.png Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
[3][4]
New York March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 27
(1892)
Adlai Stevenson
25
William McKinley 1.png
William McKinley
(1843–1901)
Ohio March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
[n 9][n 10]
Republican 28
(1896)
Garret Hobart[n 4]
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
Vacant[n 5]
November 21, 1899March 4, 1901
29
(1900)
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4, 1901September 14, 1901
26
President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
New York September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
[n 7]
Republican Vacant[n 5]
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
30
(1904)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27
William Howard Taft, Bain bw photo portrait, 1908.jpg
William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
Ohio March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
[n 3]
Republican 31
(1908)
James S. Sherman[n 4][n 9]
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
Vacant[n 5]
October 30, 1912March 4, 1913
28
President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg
Woodrow Wilson
(1856–1924)
New Jersey March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 32
(1912)
Thomas R. Marshall
33
(1916)
29
Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg
Warren G. Harding
(1865–1923)
Ohio March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
[n 9][n 4]
Republican 34
(1920)
Calvin Coolidge
30
John Calvin Coolidge, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
Calvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
Massachusetts August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929
Republican Vacant[n 5]
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
35
(1924)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31
HerbertHoover.jpg
Herbert Hoover
(1874–1964)
California March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
[n 3]
Republican 36
(1928)
Charles Curtis
32
Franklin D. Roosevelt - NARA - 196715.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
New York March 4, 1933 (1933-03-04)

April 12, 1945 (1945-04-12)
[n 9][n 4]
Democratic 37
(1932)
[n 13]
John Nance Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
38
(1936)
39
(1940)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
40
(1944)
Harry S. Truman
January 20, 1945April 12, 1945
33
Harry-truman.jpg
Harry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
Missouri April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
Democratic Vacant[n 5]
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
41
(1948)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34
Dwight D. Eisenhower, White House photo portrait, February 1959.jpg
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)
New York and Kansas January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
[n 14]
Republican 42
(1952)
Richard Nixon
43
(1956)
35
John Fitzgerald Kennedy.png
John F. Kennedy
(1917–1963)
Massachusetts January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
[n 9][n 10]
Democratic 44
(1960)
Lyndon B. Johnson
36
Lyndon B. Johnson, photo portrait, leaning on chair, color.jpg
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
Texas November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
Democratic Vacant[n 5]
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
45
(1964)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37
Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.jpg
Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)
California January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
[n 6]
Republican 46
(1968)
Spiro Agnew[n 6]
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
47
(1972)
 
Vacant[n 5]
October 10, 1973December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
38
Gerald Ford.jpg
Gerald Ford
(1913–2006)
Michigan August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
[n 15]
Republican Vacant[n 5]
August 9, 1974December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39
JimmyCarterPortrait.jpg
Jimmy Carter
(1924–2021)
Georgia January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
[n 3]
Democratic 48
(1976)
Walter Mondale
40
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg
Ronald Reagan
(1911–2004)
California January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Republican 49
(1980)
George H. W. Bush
50
(1984)
41
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg
George H.W. Bush
(1924–2018)
Texas January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
[n 3]
Republican 51
(1988)
Dan Quayle
42
Bill Clinton.jpg
Bill Clinton
(1946–2038)
Arkansas January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 52
(1992)
Al Gore
53
(1996)
43
George-W-Bush.jpeg
George W. Bush
(1946–2038)
Texas January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
Republican 54
(2000)
Dick Cheney
55
(2004)
44
President Barack Obama.jpg
Barack Obama
(1961–2056)
Illinois January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Democratic 56
(2008)
Joe Biden
57
(2012)
45
Donald_Trump.jpg
Donald Trump
(1946–2038)
New York January 20, 2017

January 20, 2021
[n 3]
Republican 58
(2016)
Mike Pence
46
Joe Biden.jpg
Joe Biden
(1942-2039)
Delaware January 20, 2021

January 20, 2025
Democratic 59
(2020)
Kamala Harris
47
Kamala Harris official photo.jpg
Kamala Harris
(1964–2073)
California January 20, 2025

-- January 20, 2029.

60
(2024)
Democratic Sherrod Brown
48
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Official Portrait.jpg
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez
(1989–2112)
New York January 20, 2029

January 20, 2037
Progressive 61
(2028)
Dylan J. Price
62
(2032)
49
Dylan J Price.png
Dylan J. Price
(1985–2093)
California January 20, 2037

January 20, 2045
Progressive 63
(2036)
Ivory Toldson
50
Maya_Garcia_Blank.png
Maya Garcia
(1984–2104)
Texas January 20, 2045

January 20, 2049
Liberal George Prescott Bush
65
(2044)
51
Blank_Jacobi.png
Evalyn Jacobi
(1991–2059)
Washington January 20, 2049

January 20, 2057
Progress 66
(2048)
Dan Forest
67
(2052)
52
Blank_Person.jpg
Dan Forest
(1995–2119)
Indiana January 20, 2057

January 20, 2061
Progress 68
(2056)
Owen Wood
53
Reed_Chen_Blank.png
Reed Chen
(1995–2090)
Oregon January 20, 2061

January 20, 2065
Liberal 69
(2060)
Andrew Markwalter
54
Carla_Anderson_Blank.png
Carla Anderson
(born 2009)
Wisconsin January 20, 2065

January 20, 2073
Progress 70
(2064)
Lise Duchesne
71
(2068)
55
Blank_Woman.png
Lise Duchesne
(2024–2113)
New Mexico January 20, 2073

January 20, 2077
Liberal 72
(2072)
Lewis Point Jr.
56
Horace_Fadel_Blank.png
Horace Fadel
(2029–2144)
Idaho January 20, 2077

January 20, 2081
Progressive 73
(2076)
Lisa Chan
57
Oscar_Larchman_Blank.png
Oscar Lachman
(2021-2136)
Colorado January 20, 2081

January 20, 2089
Conservative 74
(2080)
Joe P. Kennedy IV
75
(2084)
58
Rayleen_Malakar_Blank.png
Rayleen Malakar
(2035–2144)
California January 20, 2089

January 20, 2093
Conservative 76
(2088)
Caroline Shelby
59
Seras_Stultz_Blank.png
Seras Stultz
(born 2045)
Cascadia January 20, 2093

January 20, 2097
Liberal 77
(2092)
Iona Molnau
60
Tom_Steele_.png
Tom Steele
(2049-2159)
Ontario January 20, 2097

January 20, 2105
Conservative 78
(2096)
Lala Somerfield
79
(2100)
61
Estela_La_Riva_Blank.png
Estela La Riva
(born 2055)
Arizona January 20, 2105

January 20, 2109
Progressive 80
(2104)
Miriam Weinstein
62
Stewart_M_Li_Blank.png
Stewart M. Li
(born 2061)
Alberta January 20, 2109

January 20, 2117
Conservative 81
(2108)
Aaron Stultz
82
(2112)
63
Blank_Person.jpg
Christopher Reagan
(born 2066)
Colorado January 20, 2117

January 20, 2121
Liberal 83
(2116)
Eliza Jin Tao
64
Miriam_Weinstein.png
Miriam Weinstein
(born 2052)
Georgia January 20, 2121

January 20, 2129
Progress 84
(2120)
Avery Johnson
85
(2124)
65
Thang_Levin_Blank.png
Thang Levin
(born 2084)
Oregon January 20, 2129

January 20, 2133
Conservative 86
(2128)
David Castillo
66
Halvidar_Blank.png
Lionel Halvidar
(1991–2160)
Bradbury January 20, 2133

January 20, 2141
Union 87
(2132)
Cora Fabian
88
(2136)
67
Cora_Fabian_Blank.png
Cora Fabian
(born 2094)
England January 20, 2141

January 20, 2149
Union 89
(2140)
Mika Sakahki
90
(2144)
68
Zaya_Blank.png
Ha-eun Zaya
(born 2081)
Xibalba January 20, 2149

January 20, 2157
Union 91
(2148)
Joaquin Vega
92
(2152)
69
Dom_Terragno_Blank.png
Dom Terragno
(born 2109)
Ecuador January 20, 2157

Present
New Republican 93
(2156)
Horace Fitzgerald
94
(2160)

Notes[]

  1. Three presidents are counted above with multiple political affiliations: John Tyler (Whig, Unaffiliated), Abraham Lincoln (Republican, National Union), and Andrew Johnson (National Union, Democratic).
  2. The presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  3. Listed here is the most recent office (either with a U.S. state or the federal government) held by the individual prior to becoming president.
  4. Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1,461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who served a full term.
  5. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction that became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States that were contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  6. Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who served a full term.
  7. The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  8. John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson.
  9. John Tyler was sworn in as president on April 6, 1841.
  10. John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  11. Millard Fillmore was sworn in as president on July 10, 1850.
  12. When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  13. Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for vice president on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  14. Chester A. Arthur was initially sworn in as president on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22.
  15. Calvin Coolidge was initially sworn in as president on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 21.
  16. The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified on January 23, 1933) moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.

References[]

  1. The Constitution: Amendments 11–27. U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved on October 1, 2008.
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