This timeline of major events attempts to lay out the most important points in history leading up to the Second Renaissance. All dates are in Earth Standard Dating.

21st CenturyEdit

Great ResetEdit

2020 COVID-19 pandemic: The COVID-19 pandemic was a pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The outbreak was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019, resulting in more than one million deaths and also caused a world-wide economic recession from 2020-2021 after spreading to 188 countries and territories, which brought about social and economic disruption worldwide following the implementation of measures to curb the spread of the disease. The disease was thought to have been brought about by a viral strain of the coronavirus known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 .
2022 New Space Race: Following the world-wide economic recession, the world gradually recovered economically and a new space race began shortly thereafter.
2023 Humans on Mars: The Mars Corporation launches its first manned mission to Mars. Meridian Base is established. Bradbury Base is established in lower Tharsis shortly thereafter.

End of the Little Cold War: The Russian Federation collapses, unexpectedly, following a surprising announcement of Putin's resignation of the office of the presidency. Russia falls into anarchy and over two dozen states successfully breakaway from Russia, leaving the former great power in a much weaker geopolitical position.

2023 Fusion Power: The first Lockheed-Martin fusion reactor is installed on the first prototype Columbia-Class ballistic missile submarine.
2023-2038 Eurasian Crisis: NATO and UN forces make incursions into the former Russian Federation to secure nuclear stockpiles from breakaway republics and rogue generals. Some states such as Buryatia and Tuva voluntarily hand over their stockpiles, while Primorye, the Ural Republic, Samara, and the future Russian Republic refuse to surrender their weapons but such states were unwilling to utilize these weapons in fear of nuclear retaliation from other nuclear powers. For the next 15 years, international forces engage in a series of wars to secure former Russian nuclear weapons. Poland and Turkey divide their respective spheres of influence in Russia through the Treaty of Odessa.
2025 The Flood: The South Greenland Ice Sheet falls into the Atlantic devastating coastal cities and sending sea levels 7 meters above pre-Anthropocene levels. By August, Hurricane Julia strikes the Eastern Seaboard, destroying the hastily constructed levees and sea walls. The United States capital city is temporarily relocated to Columbus until the completion of the new DC Sea Wall two years later.
2025-2027 Labor Shortage: Retirement of the Baby Boomers begins to peak, opening up millions of jobs for Millenials and Centennials (Generation Z). The developed world reaches full employment as additional jobs open up to not only replace but to support the elderly. The new demand for labor produces a competitive wage economy, but heightened inflation reduces overall buying power.
2027 Famine and Revolution: Ocean desalination as a result of the impact of the Flood devastates fish populations, while rising tides destroy millions of acres of farmland and infrastructure. A worldwide famine sets in that kills millions. Economic and social unrest leads to political upheavals across the world. A worldwide revolutionary wave begins unlike any other in history. Its impact is so great that emerging superpower, China, would enter into a state of civil war. To the southwest, Pakistan and the already devastated Afghan state would fragment. And in Western Europe, states such as Germany and France would hold new elections and calls for constitutional referendums.
2027-2032 Market Crash of 2027: The global economy continues to stagnate as the demand for labor leaves the housing and financial sectors of the global economy in ruins. Home prices drop to record lows and investor confidence is in shatters as there is no clear way for companies to keep up with the demand for goods. Inflation leaves most major currencies on their knees, and people are left working full time, with high wages, and have nothing to spend it on.

New Progressive EraEdit

2029-2035 Immigration Reform: The US Government enacts a new series of Immigration reform policies, taking advantage of the refugee crisis. Millions of Burmese, Thai, Vietnamese, Nigerian, Chinese, Indian, and Bengali immigrants flooded into North America as their home countries drowned, driving the United States population to 400 million citizens.
2025-2030 Rise of Turkey: Turkey begins a prolonged occupation of Arabia after the fall of the Islamic State and US disengagement from the Middle East. Over the next decade Turkish power expands to every corner of the Middle East and even into southern Russia. The Turks use infrastructure to consolidate their power, building the largest oil pipeline in history, stretching from the Arctic to the Bosporus.
2030-2038 Exploration of the Outer Planets: Galileo Development is founded from within LE. The company launches the largest spacecraft in history, the Galileo II to the Jovian system to develop it for resources. By 2036 the first expedition reaches Saturn and establishes the Gondor Colony on Titan. Regular deliveries of Nitrogen from Titan to Mars begin in 2038.
2031 A New Social Contract: The US government spends trillions on new social services to elevate the inflation crisis and attract new immigrants to the US. Millions of suburban houses are seized by the government and replaced with new urban civil works programs. Medicare is extended to every citizen in the United States. Private retirement programs are completely replaced by Social Security. Much of the developed world digitizes their currency to better control inflation. 
2039-2048 Japanese Resurgence: Japan establishes a series of Extraterritorial Districts in Chita and Kamchatka to service the millions of displaced peoples from their population. The country demonstrates its first hypersonic weapon in 2039. In response, the US begins supporting nationalist movements in China and Taiwan to guard against the Japanese and Turks.
2039-2049 Antarctic Flood: Additional melt off in Antarctica drives greater increases in sea levels to 30 meters above pre-Anthropocene levels. Temperatures peak at around 3 degrees Celsius above pre-Anthropocene levels. Most sea walls hold until the 2043 Hurricane Season, which leaves many of the world's last remaining sea walls destroyed. The damage to the British Isles drives millions of British and Irish citizens to flee for North America. Two years later, the British Parliament votes to dissolve the Monarchy and take direct possession of their lands to deal with the loss of so much of their critical territory. In Canada, the First Nations use the increased traffic through the Arctic to gain independence. Germany and France formally annex the remaining territories of Belgium and Netherlands not swallowed by the sea.
2045 Rise of Poland: Poland's sphere of influence grows as Slovenia and Croatia join the Visegrad group.
2045-2051 Earth Working Group: The Earth Working Group is established by consortium of businesses, NGOs and governments to to reverse the effects of climate change in 2045. Two years later, The Earth Working Group begins digging out ancient lake and river basins in the Sahara. Self-assembled aqueducts are constructed by the Working Group to begin draining excess seawater into the new man-made lakes of Africa and Central Asia. Excess sand and rock are used to construct hills around the world's new lake and river basins to shield them from wind erosion. Trees, shrubs, and grasses are planted to sustain a hydrological cycle in the Sahara.
2049 Balkan Crisis: Turkey formally absorbs the Caucasus by 2049. Poland protests and mobilizes troops. Turkey positions its forces in Bosnia on high alert bringing the planet to the brink of War.
2051-2055 World War III: Japan stages a massive attack on US space and air forces while Turkey invades the Balkans and Russia. In the face of global war, the United Nations dissolves.
2054 East Africa: East Africa unites in anticipation of the massive quantities of wealth that are about to flow into their lands from the stars.
2058 Reunification of China: Mainland China and Taiwan reunite as the United Federation of China.

Space AgeEdit

2058-2061 Project Prometheus: NASA is given a budget infusion. Research on Warp Drive conducted during the war accelerates the completion of Prometheus, the first spacecraft capable of faster-than-light travel. Launched to Alpha Centauri, the interstellar probe succeeds in proving the practical application of the White-Alcubierre Drive, and delivers a wealth of new information on an Earthlike planet around Alpha Centauri B.
2058 DC Reconstruction: The New DC Sea Wall is torn down and reconstruction of the old portions of the city begins.
2061-2071 Augment Rights Movement: Human augmentation technology developed during the Third World War leads to a new generation of veterans and retirees who are able to return to life in a better state than they left it. In 2065, student groups march on Washington DC to protest the Falana Act, claiming banning recreational augmentations is a violation to their right to freedom of expression. Five years later, law enforcement agencies are barred from discriminating against augmented humans when hiring. The following year, the Augment Rights Act is passed.
2064 First Contact: Launch of the first warp ship with a White-Alcubierre drive, the ISV Enterprise. The ship is stocked for a seven year mission to explore nearby star systems. It reaches the Alpha-Centauri system in two weeks. The crew of the Enterprise makes first contact with the K'lerin of Tau Ceti f.
2054-2065 The Refreeze: Martian mirrors are placed in Polar Orbit to reduce global temperatures and rebuild arctic glaciers. The northwest passage is closed with Ice by 2063 and Sea Levels return to pre-Anthropocene heights. Reconstruction of the previously flooded regions begins. The closure of the Northwest Passage and environmental impact on the Arctic states leads to the worst recession in 40 years.
2064-2073 First Nations War: In 2064, conflict erupts between Canada, Quebec, and the First Nations. The United States intervenes in the Canadian Civil War and deploys forces to prevent the spread of the conflict from hurt American interests. In 2067, the Canadian Civil War ends with a ceasefire. Canada is occupied by the United States. Six years later, the Union Act is passed, formally annexing the British Isles, Canada, the former First Nations, Australia, and New Zealand into the United States.
2070 New Age of Exploration: The Enterprise returns to Earth, a dozen other starships are now exploring the Local Bubble. Colonization via W-A Drive is not practical, due to the limits of W-A field volume.
2070 Proclamation of Sapere aude: Pope Francis II issues the Proclamation of Sapere aude, outlining a series of major reforms to the Catholic Church that originated in the progressive chapters in the United States.
2070-2075 Automation: AutoProgramming software begins placing millions of programmers out of work. By 2075, unemployment reaches 27% in the United States as automated systems begin outmoding technical jobs such as programming, architecture, and a number of engineering positions.
2079-2081 First Martian Revolution: On the eve of Mars being opened for large scale human colonization, the space economy stands on the edge of collapse at the threat of the United States government closing its borders. The First Martian Revolution ends with the Rosalind Amendment. Establishing a line of legal separation between the United States on Earth and the space colonies, that essentially makes them semi-autonomous territories. Following the First Martian Revolution, the Mars Corporation official dissolves, and formal territorial governments are established with the Interplanetary Trade Commission serving as an administrative entity.
2078-2084 Second Depression: A massive global recession resulting from rising effective demand and a growing robotic workforce that contributed to mass layoffs.

Mexican-American Cold WarEdit

2085-2086 Mass Deportations: The US administration on Earth passes a series of new immigration reform policies that close American borders on Earth to new immigrants entirely and begins mass deportations in the American southwest. Millions take advantage of the Rosalind Amendment and flee to the colonies in space. Northern Mexico is flooded with poorer former expatriates. Land strapped Mexico formally condemns the US Deportation program.
2089 Central American Annexation: Mexico formally annexes its Central American allies with minimal resistance. Many of the former expatriates refuse to relocate, out of the desire to return to their adoptive country. The United States deploys several Battle Groups to the Panama coast to prevent Mexican takeover of the Canal zone.
2090-2092 Second Mexican-American War: War breaks out after Pro-US Panamanians fire on a Mexican division stationed at DMZ, drawing Mexico to invade Panama to support their claim to the region. Mexico deploys troops to Colombia to counter the US assault from Ecuador. With the exception of Brazil and Ecuador, all of South America has declared for Mexico. The US deploys Space Marines to Argentina and Chile to split Mexico's forces from Ecuador and Panama. The conflict ends in a ceasefire.
2090-2092 Great Wall of America: The US and Mexico construct a complex network of fixed fortifications and surveillance stations along the US-Mexican border. Several thousand military personelle patrol the border while both sides move tactical nuclear devices to the area to deter the other from attack.
2099 Guardiola Incident: The Guardiola Foundation launches a full scale attack against the orbital colonies. The conflict lasts more than ten months.

22nd CenturyEdit

The Balkanization EraEdit

2102 Collapse of the Mediterranean Union: The MU collapses after several insurrections following the famine incurred from the colony embargo in retribution for the Guardiola Incident. Mexican and American "advisers" aid the former MU nations in negotiating a return to normal trade relations.
2102-2106 Second Vietnam War: Outbreak of the Second Vietnam War.
2105-2126 Third Chinese Civil War: Mexican funded regionalist movements lead to the Third Chinese Civil War. The conflict fades in intensity by 2111 as regionalists consolidate gains in Southern China. The United Federation of China collapses in 2117 when separatist groups can no longer be held back as discontent in the Chinese military leads to a coup in Beijing. US military forces in Shanghai are deployed to restore order and put down the coup, propping up a Han Chinese state and occupying the Wu speaking region of the Yangtze delta.
2108-2116 Non-Human Civil Rights Movement: Intelligent Programs are banned by the US Congress after several Itskov androids pass Turing Tests after professing a desire to live free from their owners. Five years later, two sentient androids, GB311-09 "Pauline" and I-CL10334 "Hendrix" create a machine by combining base elements from both operating systems. This violates the ban on Intelligent Programs, and they are promptly captured and destroyed. As a result, riots in Detroit, Seattle, and Miami break out as sentient androids, augmented humans, and liberal sympathizers demand equal rights for intelligent organisms of all forms. Two years later, the 35th Amendment is introduced in the House of Representatives. It is ratified the following year.
2111 Partition of East Africa: Mex-American proxy wars in East Africa end after both powers deploy troops to secure critical interests. Stability comes, but many countries are broken into American and Mexican client states.
2113 Rise of the Mexicanos Libres Party: The Mexicanos Libres Party gains a majority in the California legislature, marking the third state to experience such a change.
2119-2126 India Crisis: In 2117, Mexican business interests in Southern China begin funneling support to regionalist groups in India. Two years later, a massive cyber attack against the Indian government breaks the chain of command, giving militant groups a path to advance, and tearing the subcontinent apart. US Space Force Marines are deployed to Delhi to stop the advance of rebel forces. The crisis finally ends with a hasty partition of the subcontinent.
2126-2129 Battle of Brazil: Brazil begins meeting in secret with the US to discuss a united front against Mexico. Facing the possibility of a US-Brazil Entente, Mexico and its allies stage a massive invasion of Brazil after engineering a series of riots in the capital. A neutral puppet government is established, while Mexico's allies annex neighboring territory and establish satellite states in southern Brazil. Afterwards, Poland sends diplomats to Mexico City to discuss an alliance against the US.
2130 Bradbury Riots: The Second Martian Revolution ends after Maisie Luong and a number of her supporters are arrested or killed during raids on MSIF compounds.
2130-2134 Crisis of 2130: Stock markets crashed Earth-wide leading to a banking collapse and the exhaustion of the government's small business loan reserves. The drying up of private equity made it impossible for Personal Liability Corporations to function, leading to an extremely deep depression. The United States remained in a depression until the Third Mexican War at which point the country had largely implemented Quantum Economic principles on Earth.

Third Mexican WarEdit

2132 Election of 2132: ITC Chairman and former Resident Commissioner of Bradbury, Lionel "Leo" Halvidar announces his candidacy for the Presidency of the United States.
2133-2134 Second American Civil War: Six Southwestern States secede from the Union to form the United States of Aztlan. The conflict is centered around the status of America's Hispanic-majority population along the US-Mexican border.
2134 Mexico Invades America: After the US recaptures Texas and California, bringing the rebel states back into the Union, Mexico detonates its nuclear arsenal along the DMZ to clear a path to invade the American Southwest, beginning the Third Mexican-American War.
2135 Quantum Economic Model: The 173rd Congress passes a series of economic reforms, formally adopting the Quantum Economic Model across the entire United States.
2136 The Intermarium sides with Mexico: Poland Invades Denmark to secure a rout to the Atlantic, while Bavaria invades Saxony to secure an overland rout. Tactical nuclear weapons are used by Poland and Russia when American forces use orbital weapons against Polish forces in former Germany.
2136-2137 Operation Starlight: The Battle of Washington proves to be a turning point in the war as Mexico is defeated with the help of the newly admitted colonial states. Poland finds itself fighting a two front war and Mexico is pushed back to their territory with the help of Colonial reinforcements.
2138 Battle of Mexico: Mexico surrenders after President Jaso is killed by his own Secretary of Defense. The Third Mexican-American War ends. Fallout from the Mexico campaign leaves the Earth in a nuclear winter.
2139 Treaty of San Juan: Mexico and its sphere come under the Quantum Economic Model, the US agrees to oversee reconstruction efforts.
2140 Annexation of Hispanic America: With no clear end in sight for the occupation of South America, and significant population displacement, the US Congress formally annexes all but Brazil in Latin America, and begins a slow transition to statehood.

The Second RenaissanceEdit

2139-present Terran diaspora: Hundreds of millions of people from Earth begin leaving the planet for Venus and the outer colonies.
2139-2141 Founding of Associated States: President Halvidar of the United States announced that the US was no longer going to pursue a diplomatic policy of keeping Eurasia divided, but rather hoped to unite it; and indeed the entire world. Unification would begin with the establishment of new regional states in free association with the US. China, India, Siberia, and Atlantic Europe would each be organized under singular governments. Buffer zones of varying degrees of American occupation was slowly reduced to expand these associated states.
2149 Eternal Spring Revolt: The O'Neil Ship, Eternal Spring, attempts to secede from the Union and bombard the Earth while passing by the planet. The attack is unsuccessful, and the station recaptured, however the revolt causes Jovian and Titan representatives to force the issue of O'Neil and Orbital legal status, resulting in constitutional reforms granting O'Neil Ships greater rights to form dispersed territories and states.
2160 New Space Elevators: The Maluae Tower in the Pacific is completed, bringing the total number of space elevators on Earth up to 18.
2160 Rewilding Earth: US Interior Department reports that 97% of species lost to the Anthropocene Extinction have been partially reintroduced and biosphere's are showing signs of progress on redevelopment.
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